The District population according to 2014 population and Housing Census was 207,597 where 100,620 were males and 106,977 were females. Sex and age composition of the population has significant implications for the reproductive potential, human resource, school attendance, family formation, health care and other service delivery in general. In Uganda, the last census was carried out in November 2014 yet additional inform by planners for proper planning for the district.
Budaka district has an area of 410.1sq.km with a population density of 506.2 persons per sq.km of land in 2014. This means that the population density has increased from 372 persons per sq.km in the year 2002 to 506.2 persons per sq.km in the year 2014.The trend in population increase may not support extensive large scale agricultural production. Therefore, the District Council is to come up with strategies to guide farmers through the most modern methods of farming where small scale agriculture is more cost effective and more rewarding. Fish farming, pig rearing, poultry keeping, fruit growing, wine production and backyard gardening among others are recommended farming technological options of the time.
Budaka Town Council has the highest population density of 1,082.2 people per square kilometer while Budaka sub-county has the lowest of 292.2 people per square kilometer. Mugiti sub-county with 664.3 people per square kilometer follows second and Kaderuna with 601.3 people per square kilometre.
The District percentage poverty head count reduced by 5.1 percent to 43.9 percent compared to 49 percent in 2005/2006. The poverty head count has remained high compared to the national average of 31 percent as per the Uganda National Household Survey for 2005/2006. The poverty head count implied that out of ten people living in Budaka district, the livelihood of four people is less than Ush 3,000 each equivalent of one US-Dollar per day (on-going exchange rate). Four people out of ten cannot afford the recommended four meals per day let alone medical attention, soap and clothing among other necessities of life.
The situation is worse in Iki-Iki and Katira sub-counties where five people out of ten live below Ush 3000 each equivalent of one US-Dollar per day. The poorest people are found in Iki-Iki and Katira in Budaka district. The situation is slightly better in Kamonkoli and Mugiti sub-counties where at least six people out of ten people live above the budget line. The District Council is to allocate resources with percentage of poverty head count in mind so as to address and mitigate the impact of extreme poverty as one of the goals of the millennium development goals and Uganda Vision 2040 with a theme of transformed Ugandan society from predominantly subsistence to modern and prosperous Country.
The study shows that, with high or low fertility rate, the population of Budaka district will grow rapidly from 207,597 (2014 census) to projected population 530,970 (HFR) or 434,990 (LFR) in 2040.
The population pyramid shows that, irrespective of either high or low fertility rate, the majority of the Budaka population is of 0-14 age group who are mostly dependent on the working age group of 15-59.The smallest population of Budaka is in the age group of 60-80+.
The population pyramid shows that with the low fertility rate, Budaka District is projected to have majority of the population in age group of 15-59 which is the working group, implying that, there is a projected increase in productivity level of the District in 2040, with few dependents.